Driving Instruction and Why It Needs to Change

As someone who learned to drive at a very young age on private property, parking lots, and various driveways, I feel very strongly about the benefits of getting familiar with how a car operates just as soon as you can touch the pedals.  There is no replacement for seat time and an experienced kid behind the wheel is much safer than one that doesn’t know how to handle a car.

Now the problem today is that most drivers (young and old alike) do not know how to handle a car in the worst case scenarios simply because they’ve never been put into those situations. Driver education focuses on preventing drivers from getting themselves into dangerous situations, and that’s important, but the fact of the matter is that sometimes things happen and when they do, no amount of preventative education will help.

It is under these conditions in which a driver would benefit from a training program that focuses on car control in extreme circumstances.  A program that allows a driver to experience a car skidding out and losing traction or the pulse of the brake pedal as the ABS kicks in should be a required class to get your license, to drive on the road in which you are responsible for your car, your safety and that of your passengers, and by extension, the lives of other drivers on the road.

We are letting new drivers off easy with the almost laughably lax requirements to get a learner’s permit/license.  30 hours of classroom instruction, 12 hours of behind the wheel instruction, and 6 hours of in-car observation (in MA) is all fine and dandy, but where is the instruction around how to avoid a snowbank when your brakes lock up and your car won’t turn?  Where is the instruction on what do to if the back end of the car starts sliding out on you?  The old adage of “hope for the best but prepare for the worst” has never rung truer.  We want young drivers on the road who are competent at handling potentially dangerous situations because they have experienced them before (in a controlled environment of course).

We need to start taking young driver education more seriously and prepare them for dangerous situations so that they can react appropriately and possibly keep themselves out of trouble.

How to sell your car properly

Selling your car can be a daunting task to say the least.  Whether the attachment is emotional or financial, your car isn’t going to market itself and finding a way to make it stand out from the crowd can be difficult.  We’ll cover some of the basics to help you get rid of the old so you can bring in the new.

  1. Take good, high quality pictures:  Too often you see blurry pictures that look like they were taken by a 5 year old on the world’s first cell phone camera.  This really puts sellers off and can downplay a car that is actually in great condition.  Make sure you snap pictures of both the interior and exterior, ensuring that the car has been cleaned thoroughly (both inside and out) and that all of your belongings are removed.
  2. Provide proof of service history:  If you haven’t been saving receipts for work done, you’re in a bit of a tough spot here.  But proof that the car has been maintained well goes a long way to easing potential new owners’ minds.  If you don’t have receipts, call shops or dealerships where you know it’s been serviced to see if they have any records they could send.
  3. Be descriptive:  Describe the condition of the car (accurately of course) in more than 2 words.  A short ad that says “runs great, new tires, no A/C” often turns off potential buyers.  Talk a little about the car (but don’t write a dissertation on it) to let the buyer know you cared about maintaining the car and know it well.
  4. Include a Carfax report:  A Carfax report for around $40 will give the buyer peace of mind that is has not been in an accident or experienced flood damage etc. – well worth your money.
  5. Do your research on value:  A car that isn’t priced well will likely either not sell or leave you with less cash than you should have gotten.  Check all of the usual valuation sites like www.kbb.com and www.nada.com to find out what your car is worth and list it accordingly.  Always be prepared to negotiate if you are motivated to sell.
  6. Prepare documents:  Make sure you have the title (or know exactly where/how to get it if you financed) and make up a Bill of Sale (easily found online) to make sure you cover all of your bases.
  7. Stay safe:  If you are planning on meeting potential buyers to have them inspect the car, meet during the day in a public place (parking lot of a restaurant, gas station etc.) to avoid any potential danger.   If you don’t feel safe, bring a friend with you.
  8. Minimize risk:  Only allow test drives to potential buyers who have cash or have proof of financing, that way you can avoid tire kickers.  A free joy ride is a quick way to damage the car and you could potentially be out even more money to repair it on your own dime.
  9. Where to list:  Craigslist is very popular because it is free, but Autotrader is a good option as well.  Ebaymotors will get your more visibility, but you encounter more out-of-area buyers and that can complicate things.

Don’t be afraid to attempt this on your own.  You can always trade the car into a dealership if you are unsuccessful selling it, but if you are able to sell it yourself, you could potentially gain thousands of dollars more than what a dealership would have offered you.

What keeps a car interesting?

For one reason or another, a vast majority of us will want a new car within a few years.  A combination of getting bored with the current ride and the allure of a fresh new set of wheels has the average consumer buying a new car every 6.5 years (actually, a dramatic increase as of late).  But out there right now is someone who has owned a car for decades and loved every minute of it, so what’s the magical combo that keeps a car interesting for that long?

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For many, it’s the aftermarket support.  Part of keeping a car for that long means that it’s always evolving – never truly finished, and that means LOTS of parts to be swapped in and out as tastes change.  Whether that’s an abundance of wheels to try or 23 different types of exhausts to fit, the availability of aftermarket parts to keep rides looking up-to-date has always been a big part of the “it’s almost done, honey” perpetual project car.

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A car that you always look back at when walking away, that’s when you know you’ve got something worth holding on to.  Whether it’s a 2017 or a 1987, a car with timeless looks can be the difference between trading up to the latest and greatest and holding on to your prized possession because “everything was better in the 80s”.  Of course, this is subjective, but a car that has captured your heart by way of your eyes is one that will usually be the object of your affection for quite some time.

What keeps you swooning over your car?  Is it the former or the latter?  If it’s one of the two, a combination of both, or something entirely different, leave your thoughts on what helps cars defy the odds and become un-sellable.

The Subaru Impreza: Why 2017 is a big year

As much as we New Englanders love our AWD Subaru chariots to get us to/from wherever we need to go no matter what the conditions, the word phrase “refined ride” isn’t exactly part of their brand vocabulary.  Utilitarian is just one  word that comes to mind when describing an older Forester or bare bones Impreza, and it seems Subaru was listening to consumers as is evident in the newly redesigned Impreza.

Photo Credit: Consumer Reports

For 2017, Subaru has announced to the AWD faithful that their new Impreza (based on an all-new, shareable platform) will be quieter, ride better, and be an all-around more comfortable vehicle.  Sure, they’ve been saying that for a little while and with the exception of the Outback or Legacy, their vehicles have remained relatively “tinny”.  However, this is now a completely different ball game.

Photo credit: Consumer Reports

At first glance, not much appears to have changed.  The updates to the exterior are there (but subtle) and while the interior does benefit from some choice upgrades like a nice big touch screen and soft-touch materials, it isn’t a completely different vehicle, and for good reason.

Photo Credit: Subaru

The biggest changes become apparent when you get it out on the road.  Noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) levels have been reduced significantly and overall the cabin feels much more solid than past generations.  Steering response is great and the vehicle feels much more planted on the road, all adding to the image of a vehicle that really can “do it all” and be reasonably priced.  All of a sudden, you realize that Subaru took all of the successful aspects of the old Impreza, and simply refined it to the point where it functions as a much more comfortable vehicle without losing the Subaru character that people love.

Photo Credit: Motor Trend

As a whole, the new Impreza has certainly upped it’s game.  As pricing stays relatively flat, it will likely now appeal to buyers looking for the functionality of an AWD hatchback but want a little bit more refinement than hat was previously available at Subaru.  This new platform will be shared with other vehicles in the lineup so we look forward to driving the CrossTrek and Forester, among others.  Time will tell if this is what Subaru was going for, but we’re predicting that this can only mean good things for the unofficial car manufacturer of New England.

Best Bug-Out vehicles

While I think most of us can agree that the zombie apocalypse isn’t going to happen next week, that doesn’t mean it isn’t fun to dream about building up or buying a vehicle as the ultimate bug-out, go-anywhere-and-survive type of transportation.  So, without further ado, here is a list of the top vehicles that will keep you out of harm’s way in the most extreme (if not altogether unlikely) of scenarios.

 

1)      Avtoros Shaman:  You probably haven’t heard about this low-volume, Russian-made beast but that doesn’t mean it won’t put most anything to shame off the pavement. 8 wheel drive, 8 wheel steering, amphibious capabilities, and seating for 7 of your closest friends/family, what’s not to like?  Throw a mattress and a few packets of Quaker oatmeal in the back and you’re good to go. 

 

2)      Hagglund BV206:  Ever wanted to own a mini-tank but just didn’t pull the trigger because, well, it didn’t have a trailer?  Your search has ended.  The Hagglund was built for the sole purpose of going absolutely anywhere on the planet with all of the necessities to survive the harshest environs, including Antarctica.

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3)      M35 2.5 ton cargo truck: Affectionately called the “deuce and a half” this military grade truck is a go-anywhere 6X6 that is fairly readily available.  Though its top speed is nothing spectacular, it will run on pretty much anything and laugh in the face of small road obstacles.  Throw a camper on the back and you’ve got yourself a pretty bulletproof truck.    

 

4)      Earth Roamer XV-LT:  If the zombie apocalypse forces you into the great outdoors, the Earth Romer is the vehicle to have.  Based on the Ford F550 platform, these cab-over expedition duty campers are designed to keep you comfortable wherever the path may lead you. 

 

5)      The “Kira” Expedition RV:  Brian Ferren of Applied Minds has built the ultimate go anywhere vehicle.  Designed to tackle terrain with the most powerful technology this planet has to offer, (not to mention a turbo-diesel motorcycle for light reconnaissance) you’d be able to head to the most remote reaches of the planet with ease (and a hot shower).

 

6)      The “Burlak”: Once again, the Russians deliver a monster of a truck capable of toppling mountains with a punch of the skinny pedal.  From the guys who brought you the Sherp (a smaller version of this, essentially) this vehicle has the space to take you and your family of 4 anywhere in relative comfort. 

 

7)      Russian “Vityaz” or DT-30PM: This is a just a fancy way of saying a tank with another tank as a trailer.  This “articulating tracked vehicle” or ATV is basically two tanks strapped together with a payload of 10 tons.  Popular in the then USSR, these vehicles saw military and civilian action all over the world gaining access to remote areas where nothing else could dream of going.

 

8)      Arctic Trucks Toyota Hilux AT44 6X6: One of the slightly more civilized and attainable vehicles of this bunch, the transformed Hilux has already performed admirably on Top Gear’s Arctic special (albeit in a slightly different form).  Toyota build quality with Icelandic arctic ingenuity and know-how, doubtful there’s a better cold weather combo out there. 

 

So when you’re preparing for the end of days, be sure to save up for some suitable transportation because these aren’t going to be cheap (or easy to find).  Drool away preppers, your vehicle has arrived! 

The legend lives on: The 2016 Toyota Land Cruiser

The Toyota Land Cruiser name has always been synonymous with go-anywhere capability but only in the 1990’s did it begin to garner some respect as a luxury vehicle as well.  Well this trend continues with this mid-model refresh for 2016, and you’ll be hard pressed to find a more capable luxury vehicle than this uber-posh off-roader.

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For 2016, the front fascia of the Land Cruiser gets a refresh, the most prominent new feature being the quad-projector LED headlights that light up the night like the 4th of July.  The revised grill has been accused of being too Highlander-esque but there’s no mistaking this for the Toyota cross-over with much less machismo.  From the A-pillars forward, we have all new sheet metal and the taillights get a slightly refreshed look, but overall, there aren’t very many significant changes to the exterior of the Land Cruiser for 2016, unless of course you count the multiple little “Land Cruiser” embellishments on the headlights and bottom of the rear doors.

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Inside is where you’ll notice the biggest changes.  2016 brings in a new era of gadgetry with a 9” touch screen shoe-horned into the center console.  In keeping with the Land Cruiser tradition, every feature is standard equipment, meaning you get Bluetooth, navigation, heated/cooled seats, 2 rear entertainment screens and a plethora of other luxury bits to keep you and your riders happy.  Quality materials are still used everywhere, and the new steering wheel not only looks and feels great, but also heats up for those cold winter days.  Legroom and headroom are still ample in both front and rear seats, but you do feel like you are in a bit of a cockpit with this latest generation having all manner of knobs and buttons very close to the driver.  Worth noting is that any surface, button or knob that gets used frequently exudes true quality.  The aforementioned knobs feel like solid metal, the switches most commonly used are like a well-oiled bolt-action rifle, simply perfection.  Additionally, the seats are very comfortable and would serve anyone well on long family expeditions.  Overall, a very nice place to be, especially with this author’s favorite, the optional Terra (brown) leather.

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Safety is still a Toyota priority and the Land Cruiser is no exception.  As standard equipment, you’ll find blind spot monitoring, rear cross-traffic alert, lane departure warnings, and radar guided cruise control that can brake the vehicle in case the driver isn’t paying attention.  Not only is this vehicle a great cross-country hauler, but these features add a new level of safety that comes standard. 

On the road, the Land Cruiser still feels as solid as ever.  Speed bumps simply flatten out in fear, potholes and road imperfections are coerced into submission, there is really no better riding full-size SUV on the planet.  Road noise is minimal with the huge amount of sound deadening used, and the only drawback to this latest Land Cruiser is the visibility.  With the newly designed hood that is about the same size as a soccer field, forward visibility is reduced a bit.  The same 5.7L V8 comes back unchanged for 2016 as it still puts out a hefty yet buttery smooth 381hp and 401 lb/ft of torque, but don’t expect this monster to win any drag races as it tips the scales at 5765 lbs, not exactly light.  The new 8 speed transmission does its best to help in these cases, but you’d be hard pressed to notice a difference from the last gearbox other than that it seems to shift a bit more frequently and perhaps it does so q bit more quickly and smoothly.  Overall it still has great manners on or off the road, but long distance drivers especially will appreciate just how stress-free piloting one of these behemoths has become.

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At roughly $85k, there’s no denying that this is not an inexpensive vehicle, but when you crunch the numbers on just how long these legends last with so few repairs required, things start to add up.  If you want the ultimate vehicle in luxury, capability, and reliability, look no further than the Toyota Land Cruiser.

What makes a car great?

People always wonder what makes a car “better” than others, what makes a car make the hair on the back of your neck stand on end or makes you get the chills when you hear it drive by.  The final answer is rather simple…the car has to talk to you.  However easy that may seem, arriving at this end goal can be difficult to say the least.  Which is why there is no magic recipe to follow, no assembly instructions to guide engineers and designers, this is a guessing game of buyers’ desires where some manufacturers fall short and others excel.  Despite the subjective nature of making a car desirable to us car-crazed individuals, there are a few things that most petrol-heads can agree are necessary ingredients in the sports car casserole.

Image is property of Mathieu Heurtault/Gooding & Co

Throttle response is paramount to making a car engaging.  Having to step on the loud pedal and wait……….. gets really tedious when you are trying to carve up a canyon.  A well sorted throttle makes a driver feel like their right foot is connected directly to the engine, the tires begging for traction while the tail kicks loose just enough to turn your knuckles white for a second.  Without this, a car feels like a mildly depressed sloth that hasn’t had its coffee. 

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The fingers are one of the more nerve-filled extremities on the body and as a result, we can gather and feel a tremendous amount through them.  Because of this, effective communication of the front wheels through the steering wheel is crucial to making a driver feel like they are a part of the car.  If you’ve ever driven a big, luxo-barge type SUV or sedan, a numb steering wheel that disconnects driver from road is commonplace, this type of vehicle being aimed specifically at people who don’t care about going fast.  Conversely, a steering system that makes a driver feel like the front wheels are 6 inches from their hands away is one of the most sought-after traits of good sports cars.  A well-weighted (not over-boosted) hydraulic system is most common nowadays, but electric systems are starting to take their place. Don’t throw a fit just yet, fellow gearheads, because according to most reviews, they still don’t have the perfect feel like their tried-and-true hydraulic ancestors, but who knows what the next few years will hold?

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Striking a balance between a comfortable ride and a strong showing at a track is one of the toughest challenges a car manufacturer can face.  On one hand, you don’t want the car to punish the driver too much with a bouncy, unpredictable, and unsettled ride but on the other hand, you don’t want to produce a car that rides like a 1950’s Cadillac.  The 1% of enthusiast buyers out there will argue that no car can be too punishing and that dedicated track cars are always going to be better at going fast in all situations, and they’re right (for the most part).  But for those of us that live in the real world, a fast car has to feel balanced in all situations whether it be a back-road bomb to grab some milk or a track day weekend at Lime Rock.  Achieving this feeling of stability at all speeds while simultaneously giving the car the ability to communicate exactly what all 4 corners  are doing is nothing short of automotive wizardry.

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Aural inspiration can be hard to find these days, which indicates that we’ve arrive at one of the more subjective parts of this equation…noise.  Most car enthusiasts will admit that a well-tuned exhaust note is crucial to the full enjoyment of a drive, and most car enthusiasts are right.  However, getting them all to agree on one particular exhaust sound is like trying to get everyone to agree to a universal favorite color….ain’t goin’ happen.  Some prefer the banshee wail of a Porsche flat 6 climbing to 7k rpms where others prefer to enjoy the deep bass of an AMG V8 starting a small earthquake, there’s no wrong answer here.  However, the need for a core-chilling, grin-inducing soundtrack to accompany a slow hairpin exit is an almost universally accepted notion amongst drivers.  A car sound that gives you goosebumps is more likely to get a gazillion hits on YouTube than one that sounds like a lawnmower, that’s a fact.     

While this list changes depending on an individual’s tastes, enthusiasts can generally agree that the above aspects are major contributors to the fun factor of a car.  Feel free to comment with your own additions if you think there are some other parts we’re missing. 

Another 10 for under $10K

A used, one owner, under 100k miles, clean CarFax Toyota Corolla? For under $10k?  Yes please.

http://www.autotrader.com/cars-for-sale/vehicledetails.xhtml?zip=02118&endYear=2017&showcaseOwnerId=0&startYear=1981&listingType=used&firstRecord=0&listingTypes=used&searchRadius=25&maxPrice=10000&listingId=440654416&Log=0

Don’t let the mileage fool you, this Lexus is ready for another 100k miles with a reliable buttery smooth V8.  An easy way to get some luxury in your life for a bargain.

http://www.autotrader.com/cars-for-sale/vehicledetails.xhtml?zip=02118&endYear=2017&showcaseOwnerId=0&startYear=1981&listingType=used&firstRecord=0&listingTypes=used&searchRadius=25&maxPrice=10000&listingId=438701309&Log=0

Looking to haul the family on a budget?  Check out this 2007 Honda Pilot.

http://www.autotrader.com/cars-for-sale/vehicledetails.xhtml?zip=02118&endYear=2017&showcaseOwnerId=0&startYear=1981&listingType=used&firstRecord=25&listingTypes=used&searchRadius=25&maxPrice=10000&listingId=440934024&Log=0

Not looking forward to winter driving?  Gain some confidence with this sure-footed Subaru Outback.

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Here’s a great little low mileage Mazda 3 that is sure to last for years to come.

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If you want to go green on a budget, then there is your chance!  A used Toyota Prius with plenty of service records.

http://www.autotrader.com/cars-for-sale/vehicledetails.xhtml?zip=02118&endYear=2017&showcaseOwnerId=0&startYear=1981&listingType=used&firstRecord=125&listingTypes=used&searchRadius=25&maxPrice=10000&listingId=439804941&Log=0

Here is an exceptionally low mileage Toyota Rav4, the perfect small SUV to get you around town and wherever else you need to go.

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Looking for off-road capability in a reliable package?  Then look no further, at only 122k miles this Toyota 4Runner is just barely broken in.

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If you need to go full-size, it’s hard to find something better than a Chevrolet Suburban.

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The ultimate in reliability, ruggedness and go-anywhere capability, the Toyota Land Cruiser.  Don’t let the mileage fool you, this one is ready for many more adventures.

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10 good cars for under $10K you can buy NOW

The title says it all really…

http://www.carfax.com/vehicles/2T1KU40E49C007553-used-2009-toyota-matrix–malden

Toyota Matrix:  A great little economy car with a lot of miles left to go at only 73K miles!  Great on gas too, a good bargain at this price.

http://www.carfax.com/vehicles/JM1BL1SG4A1227266-used-2010-mazda-mazda3-i-sport–malden

Mazda 3:  Another great affordable car, but this one has a nice interior that feels much more expensive than it actually is, hats off to Mazda for making a great little all-around car.

http://www.carfax.com/vehicles/JTMBK32V365002513-used-2006-toyota-rav4-sport–brockton

Toyota Rav4:  If you need a bit more space but don’t need a full-size SUV, a Rav4 is a excellent choice that will last for years to come.  Don’t spend up on a new one when this one has plenty of life left!

http://www.carfax.com/vehicles/JTHBA30G045005498-used-2004-lexus-es-330–shrewsbury

Lexus ES330:  For those who want luxury on a budget, it is hard to beat a used Lexus ES.  With great service records and low mileage for the year, this is a great find that will run smoothly for years to come

http://www.carfax.com/vehicles/1FTYR10D18PA84754-used-2008-ford-ranger–north-hampton

Ford Ranger:  If you don’t want to pay the premium for a Tacoma, a Ranger is a great option for a small utility pickup.

http://www.carfax.com/vehicles/1GKEK13Z12R328904-used-2002-gmc-yukon–storrs-mansfield

GMC Yukon:  This is a full-size family hauler that could be negotiated down a bit.  Solid SUV with a traditional body-on-frame construction that’ll run for years to come, a family truckster on a budget!

http://www.carfax.com/vehicles/JTJHA31U040049429-used-2004-lexus-rx-330–manchester

Lexus RX: the quintessential crossover SUV with all the luxury you could ever need.  A bargain for under 10k and a car that will keep you floating over the pavement for many more miles.

http://www.carfax.com/vehicles/JN1AZ0CP1CT021707-used-2012-nissan-leaf–dedham

Nissan Leaf:  If you want to go green on a budget, this ultra-low mileage Leaf will get you there with cash to spare.  All electric means a limited range before you need a charge, but this would be a great second car or dedicated commuter vehicle.

http://www.carfax.com/vehicles/JTEBT14RX58027385-used-2005-toyota-4runner-sr5–haverhill

Toyota 4Runner V8:  The V8 will run forever, tow anything, and never break on you,  need we say more?

http://www.carfax.com/vehicles/5TBBT44144S455584-used-2004-toyota-tundra-sr5–auburn

Toyota Tundra:  A full-size work truck on a budget, V8 that will last forever, what more could one ask for?

 

Hybrids: What makes them different and how to they work?

Many people have heard the term hybrid thrown around a lot but don’t really understand how a modern day hybrid works.  The most obvious benefit of a hybrid is the incredible gas mileage, but what is going on behind the scenes to make them sip that gas rather than guzzle it?  We’ll try to explain these very complex systems here, but in the interest of our own sanity and because of the limits of our technical knowledge, we’ll keep this on the simpler side. 

There are several different forms of hybrid drivetrains, the most common one being both an electric motor and a gas motor powering the wheels, acting in conjunction with one another, called a parallel hybrid.   This is beneficial because you have the benefit of the torque of the electric motor in addition to the added power of the gasoline engine when you need it.  In most cases, the gas engine is activated when you put your foot down to accelerate quickly. 

A second popular configuration is called the series hybrid.  What makes the layout different is that instead of having both the gas and electric motors connected to the driven wheels, the series hybrid only has the electric motors connected to the wheels while the gas engine is there only to generate power for the electric motors through a generator, converter, and battery.  This setup is popular because the gas engine can be a lot smaller and more efficient because it no longer has to do the work of helping to drive the wheels.

These are, in one form or another, the most common types of hybrid drivetrains present in vehicles today.  For example, the Toyota Prius, which is one of the best-selling hybrids on the road, utilizes a highly refined parallel drivetrain called a power-split hybrid which allows the engine to be connected to the wheels electrically or mechanically at any given point.  There are different configurations of each of these systems, differing in the way the engine is utilized and how often the electric and gas motors are used, but the basic technology remains the same across many platforms regardless of manufacturer. 

With a true hybrid, there are generally three different ways that the car can be powered.  As one would expect, there is full electric mode which means the car or truck is being driven by the electric motors alone.  There is a limited range with this mode, as with gas cars, because the battery can only last so long before it needs a recharge. 

A gas only mode is exactly what it sounds like, a mode where only the gas engine is utilized.  This is generally happening when more power is needed perhaps with more aggressive driving or when the vehicle is loaded up with passengers and gear but the driver still wants to cruise at a reasonable highway speed.

Finally, a true hybrid will have the ability to combine both power sources at any given time to complement each’s strengths and weaknesses.  For example, cars with smaller 4 cylinder engines may find themselves lacking in power in the lower RPM’s of the rev range.  An electric motor, in this case, would prove particularly useful in aiding the engine from a stand-still with a heavy load, thus reducing the strain on the engine.      

This should cover the more common, conventional hybrids on the road today.  True to their innovative nature, automotive manufacturers are constantly at work coming up with new, more efficient ways to get cars down the road so don’t be surprised if there are different options out there in short order.  However, the same basic principles will apply so if you are looking for an efficient mode of transportation without committing to going full electric just yet, a hybrid may be the car for you!    

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